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Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) is the northern most state in India. It is surrounded on the north by Afghanistan and China, on the east by China, on the south by the state of Himachal Pradesh and the state of Punjab in India, and on the west by the North-West Frontier Province and the Punjab Province of Pakistan. J&K covers an area of 222,236 sq km (85,805 sq mi).

Jammu and Kashmir are really three regions: the foothill plains of Jammu; the lakes and blue valleys of Kashmir rising to alpine passes, the high altitude plains and starkly beautiful mountains of Ladakh which lies beyond those passes. The Indus River flows through Kashmir and the Jhelum River rises in the northeastern portion of the territory.

Kashmir possesses a more equable climate than that of southern and central India. The beautiful Vale of Kashmir is a noted resort region. Srinagar is Jammu and Kashmir's summer capital and Jammu is the winter capital.



Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh the land of eternal snow peaks is a charming mountain state. Blessed with charming crystal lakes, pretty flowers, ancient shrines and beautiful people; Himachal Pradesh is one of the most beautiful states in India. Himachal Pradesh is bordered on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the west and southwest by Punjab, on the south by Haryana, on the southeast by Uttar Pradesh, and on the east by Tibet (an autonomous region of China). Himachal Pradesh is enveloped by the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges in the northwest, dominated by the great Himalayas in the north and east and marked with lower ridges of the Shivalik ranges in the south-east.

Himachal has five mighty snow-fed rivers flowing through it - the Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna. Climatically, this state is divisible into two regions - the south which is as warm as the plains, and the north where the summers are temperate and winters are extremely cold.

Himachal Pradesh has a single-chamber legislative assembly with 68 seats. The state sends seven members to the Indian national parliament: three to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and four to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). Local government is based on 12 administrative districts. Shimla, also a beautiful hill resort is the capital of this state.



Uttarakhand

The state is frequently denoted as the Dev Bhumi or Land of God because it houses various religious places and places of worships that are regarded as the most sacred and propitious areas of devotion and pilgrimage. Uttarakhand was created by joining a number of districts from the northwestern part of Uttar Pradesh and a portion of the Himalayan Mountain Range. At present, it is the 27th state of the country. The state is mostly famous for its scenic features and affluence of the Himalayas, the Terai and the Bhabhar.



Delhi

Delhi, the capital city of India, is the second most populated city in India and has a population of over 16 million people. Delhi is situated on the banks of Yamuna and extends over an area of 1484 sq km. The city is bordered by the Haryana in the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh in the east. Delhi is the largest commercial center in the northern India and the culture of Delhi has been influenced by its important history as the capital of India.

The old city of Delhi was surrounded by a high stone wall, erected in 1638. It is approached through seven arched gateways, including the Delhi Gate in the south, the Ajmer Gate in the east, and the Kashmir Gate in the north. Within the walls is a maze of congested narrow streets, alleys, busy bazaars, and some of the nation's most spectacular Indo-Muslim architectural features. Delhi can be said to be the true portrayer of India culture. Delhi manages to seamlessly blend the traditional and the modern.



Rajasthan

Rajasthan is located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. It is bordered on the west and northwest by Pakistan, on the north and northeast by the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, on the east and southeast by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, and on the southwest by the state of Gujarat. The Tropic of Cancer passes through its southern tip in the Banswara district. The state has an area of 342,239 sq kilometers. The capital city is Jaipur.



Madhya Pradesh

Landlocked in the central part of the country, Madhya Pradeshis bordered by the states of Rajasthan to the northwest, Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Maharashtra to the south, and Gujarat to the west.

Madhya Pradesh had the honor of being the largest state of the country until Chhattisgarh was carved out of it on 1st November 2000.

Madhya Pradesh has a mixed topography that consists of both hills and plains. The state has three predominant seasons: winter (November through February), summer (March through May), and the monsoon season (June through September). During the winter average temperatures range from 10° to 27° C (50° to 81° F). Summers are hot, with an average temperature of 29° C (85° F) and a high temperature that at times reaches 48° C (118° F). During the monsoon season temperatures average 19° to 30° C (66° to 86°). Madhya Pradesh receives an average annual rainfall of about 1200 mm (nearly 50 in), of which 90 percent falls during the monsoon season. The capital of the state is Bhopal.



Gujrat

Gujarat is situated in the west coast of India. The state is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north and north-east respectively, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Maharashtra in the south. The state covers an area of 196,024 sq km (75,685 sq mi).

The name Gujarat is said to have been derived from the Prakrit Gujjar Ratta or Gujjar Rashtra - the land of Gujjars - a tribe that entered India with the Huns in ancient time and wandering through Punjab and Rajasthan, settled in western India.

Gujarat had a great civilization even before the arrival of the Aryans. It had trade links with ancient civilizations of Sumer, Babylon, Assyria and Egypt. The Port of Lothal which has been excavated recently has been identified as an important centre of the 4500 years old Aryan civilization. Gujarat is renowned for its temples and monuments associated with momentous historical periods. The architectural and artistic virtuosity of the people of Gujarat is reflected in the many buildings both ancient and modern. As much a part of the state are its wildlife sanctuaries, its hill resorts, its natural grandeur and religious and pilgrim centers.

Gujarat has a single-chamber legislative assembly with 182 members. The state sends 37 members to the Indian national parliament: 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House) and 26 to the Lok Sabha (Lower House). Local government is based on 19 administrative districts.